Drupal is a free and open source content-management framework written in PHP and distributed under the GNU General Public License. Drupal provides a back-end framework for at least 2.3% of all sites worldwide – ranging from personal blogs to corporate, political, and government sites. Systems also uses Drupal for knowledge management and for business collaboration. , the Drupal community is made up of 1.3 million members, including 109,800 users and 39,500 free modules. Drupal functionality, over 2,570 free themes that change the look and feel of Drupal, and at least 1,200 free distributions that allow users to quickly and easily set up a complex, use-specific Drupal in less steps. The standard release of Drupal, known as Drupal core, contains basic features common to content-management systems. These include user account registration and maintenance, menu management, RSS feeds, taxonomy, page layout customization, and system administration. The Drupal core installation can serve as a simple Web site, a single-or multi-user blog, an Internet forum, or a web site providing for user-generated content. Drupal also describes itself as a Web application framework. When compared with notable frameworks Drupal meets the requirements of such web frameworks. Although Drupal offers a sophisticated API for developers, it does not require programming skills.
Originally written by Dries Buytaert as a message board, Drupal became an open source project in 2001. The name Drupal represents an English rendering of the Dutch word, which means “drop” (as in a water droplet). The name came from the now-defunct Drop.org Web site, whose code slowly evolved into Drupal. Buytaert wanted to call the site “dorp” (Dutch for “village”) for its community aspects, but mistyped it when checking the domain name and thought the error sounded better. Interest in Drupal got a significant boost in 2003 when he helped build “DeanSpace” for Howard Dean, one of the US Democratic Party’s primary campaign candidates for the 2004 US presidential election. DeanSpace used open-source sharing of Drupal to support a decentralized network of approximately 50 disparate, unofficial pro-Dean websites that allowed users to communicate with others. After Dean ended his campaign, members of his Web team continued to pursue their interest in a Web platform that could help political activism by launching CivicSpace Labs in July 2004, “… the first company with full-time employees that was developing distributing Drupal technology. ” Other companies also specialized in Drupal development. Drupal-related services offered by Drupal-related services. Drupal is developed by a community, and its popularity is growing rapidly. From July 2007 to June 2008 the Drupal.org site provided more than 1.4 million downloads of Drupal software, an increase of approximately 125% from the previous year. more than 1,180, 000 sites use Drupal. These include hundreds of well-known organizations, including corporations, media and publishing companies, governments, non-profits, schools, and individuals. Drupal has won several Packt Open Source CMS Awards and won the Webware 100 three times in a row. On March 5, 2009 Buytaert announced a code freeze for Drupal 7 for September 1, 2009. Drupal 7 was released on January 5, 2011, with release parts in several countries. After that, on Drupal 5 stopped, with only Drupal 7 and Drupal 6 maintained. Drupal 7 series maintenance updates are released regularly. On December 1, 2012, Drupal started its feature completion. Drupal 8 first release candidate (rc1) was announced. Drupal 8 includes new features and improvements for both users and developers, including: a revamped user interface; WYSIWYG and in-place editing; improved mobile support; added Views, Date, and Entity Reference; introduced a new object-oriented backend leveraging symfony components; revamped configuration management; and improved multilingual support. Drupal 8 rc1 is the collective work of over 3,200 core contributors. Drupal 8.0.0 was released on November 19, 2015. Subsequent Major and Minor Releases (8.5.3 as of April 25, 2018) which brings numerous improvements and fixed fixes (including CKEditor WYSIWYG enhancements, added APIs, an improved help page) be found on the Releases page. introduced a new object-oriented backend leveraging symfony components; revamped configuration management; and improved multilingual support. Drupal 8 rc1 is the collective work of over 3,200 core contributors. Drupal 8.0.0 was released on November 19, 2015. Subsequent Major and Minor Releases (8.5.3 as of April 25, 2018) which brings numerous improvements and fixed fixes (including CKEditor WYSIWYG enhancements, added APIs, an improved help page) be found on the Releases page. introduced a new object-oriented backend leveraging symfony components; revamped configuration management; and improved multilingual support. Drupal 8 rc1 is the collective work of over 3,200 core contributors. Drupal 8.0.0 was released on November 19, 2015. Subsequent Major and Minor Releases (8.5.3 as of April 25, 2018) which brings numerous improvements and fixed fixes (including CKEditor WYSIWYG enhancements, added APIs, an improved help page) be found on the Releases page.
In the Drupal community, “core” refers to the collaboratively constructed code that can be extended to a greater or lesser extent. (Starting with version 8, core is kept in its own ‘core’ sub-directory.) Drupal core is the stock element of Drupal. Bootstrap and Common libraries are defined as Drupal core and all other functionalities are defined as Drupal modules including the system module itself. In a Drupal website’s default configuration, authors can contribute content to the registered or anonymous users (at the discretion of the administrator). This content is accessible to the web through a variety of selectable criteria. As of Drupal 8, Drupal has adopted some Symfony libraries into Drupal core. Core modules also includes a hierarchical taxonomy system, which allows developers to categorize content or key words for easier access. Drupal maintains a detailed changelog of core feature updates by version.
Drupal core includes optional modules that can be enabled by the administrator to extend the functionality of the core website. The core Drupal Distribution Provides a number of features, Including:
Drupal includes core themes, qui customize the “look and feel” of Drupal websites, for example, Garland and Bartik. The Color Module, introduced in Drupal core 5.0, allows administrators to change the color scheme of certain themes via a browser interface.
, Drupal had been made available in 100 languages and English (the default). Support is included for right-to-left languages such as Arabic, Persian, and Hebrew. Drupal localization is built on top of gettext, the GNU internationalization and localization (i18n) library.
Drupal can automatically notify the administrator about new modules, themes, or the Drupal core. It’s important to update soon after security updates are released. Before updating it is highly recommended for backup of core, modules, theme, files and database. If there is any error shown after update or new updates is not compatible with a module, then it can be quickly replaced by backup. There are several backup modules available in Drupal. On October 15, 2014, was released and released. Two weeks later, the Drupal security team, released in the last week of the year. THUS,
Prior to version 7, SQL query cleansing, multi-site table name prefixing, SQL queries. In particular, Drupal 6 introduced an abstraction layer that allowed programmers to create SQL queries without writing SQL. Drupal 7 extends the data SQL queries as text strings. It uses PHP Data Objects to abstract the database. Microsoft has written a database for their SQL Server. Drupal 7 supports the file-based SQLite database engine, which is part of the standard PHP distribution.
With Drupal 7’s new database abstraction layer, and ability to run on the Windows web server IIS, it is now easier for Windows developers to participate in the Drupal community. A group on Drupal.org is dedicated to Windows issues.
With the release of Drupal 7, The Drupal Community. Drupal is a good framework for building sites accessible to people with disabilities, because many of the best practices have been incorporated into the core code program. The accessibility team is carrying on the work of identifying and resolving accessibility barriers and raising awareness within the community. Drupal 7 started the adoption of WAI-ARIA support for Drupal Drupal, especially:
Drupal core is modular, defining a system of hooks and callbacks, which are accessed internally via an API. This design allows third-party contributors and themes to extend or override Drupal’s default behaviors without changing Drupal core’s code. Drupal isolates core files from contributed modules and themes. This site can be upgraded to its own website. The Drupal community has the saying, “Never hack core,” a strong recommendation that site developers do not change core files.
Contributed modules, such as additional picture galleries, custom content types and content listings, WYSIWYG editors, private messaging, third party integration tools, integrating with BPM portals, and more. the Drupal website lists more than 36,500 free modules. Some of the most commonly used contributed modules include:
There are more than 2,400 free community-contributed themes. Themes adapt or replace a Drupal site’s default look and feel. Drupal themes can be generated by common third-party theme design engines. Many are written in the PHPTemplate engine or, to a lesser extent, the XTemplate engine. Some templates use hard-coded PHP. Drupal will join the Twig templating engine. The inclusion of the PHPTemplate and the XTemplate engines in Drupal addressed user concerns about flexibility and complexity. The Drupal theme uses a template engine to further separate HTML / CSS from PHP. A popular Drupal contributed module called ‘Devel’ provides GUI information to developers and themers about the page build. Community-contributed themes at the Drupal website are released under a free GPL license,
In the past, those who want to fully understand Drupal core. Today, however, a distribution defines a packaged version of the application of a specific application. The distribution offers the benefit of a third-party supply of modules or adjust configuration settings. They are collections of modules, themes, and associated configuration that prepare Drupal for custom operation. For example, a distribution could configure Drupal as a “brochure” site rather than a website or online store.
Drupal is based on the Abstraction Control architecture, or PAC. The menu system acts as the Controller. It accepts input via a single source (HTTP GET and POST), routes requests to the appropriate helper functions, pulls data out of the Abstraction (nodes and, from Drupal 5 onwards, forms), and then pushes it through a filter to get a Presentation of it (the theme system). It also has multiple, parallel PAC agents in the form of blocks that push data out to a common canvas (page.tpl.php).
Drupal.org Drupal.org Drupal Drupal Drupal Drupal The semiannual DrupalCon conference alternates between North America, Europe and Asia. Attendance at DrupalCon grew from 500 at Szeged in August 2008, to over 3,700 people at Austin, Texas in June, 2014. Smaller events, known as “Drupal Camps” or DrupalCamp, occur throughout the year all over the world. The annual Florida DrupalCamp brings users together for Coding for a cause that benefits a local nonprofit organization, as does the annual GLADCamp (Greater Los Angeles Drupal Camp) event, Coders with a Cause. The Drupal Community also organizes professional and semi-professional gatherings called meetups at a large number of comings around the world. In July, 2013, Droplabs, a co-working space in Los Angeles, California, was recognized as the world’s “Top Drupal Location” (with 62 recorded events) when compared with other events over a 12-month period. There are a number of active Drupal forums, mailing lists and discussion groups. Drupal also supports several IRC channels on the Freenode network. There are over 30 national communities around drupal.org offering language-specific support. Notable Drupal users include NBC, Taboola, and Patch. (with 62 recorded events) when compared with other events over a 12-month period. There are a number of active Drupal forums, mailing lists and discussion groups. Drupal also supports several IRC channels on the Freenode network. There are over 30 national communities around drupal.org offering language-specific support. Notable Drupal users include NBC, Taboola, and Patch. (with 62 recorded events) when compared with other events over a 12-month period. There are a number of active Drupal forums, mailing lists and discussion groups. Drupal also supports several IRC channels on the Freenode network. There are over 30 national communities around drupal.org offering language-specific support. Notable Drupal users include NBC, Taboola, and Patch.
Drupal’s policy is to announce the nature of each security vulnerability The update status module (Drupal 6) or via the Update Manager (Drupal 7) is one of these new releases. Drupal maintains a security announcement, a history of security advisories, a security team homepage, and an RSS feed with the most recent security advisories. In mid-October 2014, Drupal issued a “highly critical” security advisory regarding an SQL injection bug in Drupal 7, also known as Drupalgeddon. Downloading and installing an upgrade to Drupal 7.32 fixes the vulnerability, but does not remove any backdoor. Attacks started soon after the vulnerability was announced. According to the Drupal Security Team, where a site has been patched within the scope of the announcement, it should be considered to be compromised and taken offline with a view of the site. server may also have been compromised. To solve the problem, the site must be restored using backups from before October 15th, be patched up and manually updated, and anything merged from the site must be audited. In late March 2018, a patch for vulnerability CVE-2018-7600, also dubbed Drupalgeddon2, was released. Drupal 6, 7, and 8 sites. Early April, large scale automated attacks on vulnerable sites were observed, and on April 20th,
In an article about the adoption of Drupal by the Whitehouse.gov site, Slate associate editor Chris Wilson lists some of the common criticisms of Drupal. Other subjects include:
* Abbott / Jones (2016), Learning Drupal 8, England, Packt Publishing.
* Latest releases